# Calculators & Converters

We have assembled some useful Calculators and converters for use in our industry.  Click on the links below to navigate to your calculator or converter or simply scroll down to browse them all.

Ohm's Law is one of the basic rules in physics. It describes relationship between voltage, amperage (otherwise known as current) and resistance. Voltage refers to the potential difference between two points in an electrical field. Amperage is a flow of electrical charge carriers, usually electrons or electron-deficient atoms. The last term, resistance, is the substance's opposition to the flow of electric current.

Ohm's Law states that the current flowing through a conductor is proportional to the voltage between the ends of this conductor.

I/V = const

The Ohm's Law formula lets you calculate the resistance as the quotient of voltage and current. It can be written in the form of the following equation:

R = V/I

Where:

• R - resistance

• V - voltage

• I - Current

Resistance is expressed in ohms. Both the unit and the rule are named after Georg Ohm - the physicist and inventor of Ohm's Law.

Remember that Ohm's Law formula relates only to substances which are able to induce power. This rule doesn't work with semiconductors and isolators. It is valid only under certain conditions, like fixed temperature.

Pressure conversion calculator helps to quickly convert between different units that pressure can be expressed in. According to its definition, pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface per the area its applied at. For smooth pressure conversion in this tool we included various units used around the world, such as:

• Pascal - SI (International System of Units) unit equal to one newton per square meter

• Bar - also part of SI and metric system, equals 100,000 Pascals

• Pounds per square inch (also known as pound-force per square inch or psi) - it equals around 6,895 Pascals

• Hectopascal - used mostly by meteorologists to express atmospheric air pressure (equals 100 Pascals)

• Atmospheres - is also called Standard Pressure and represents a fixed value of 101,325 Pascals

Depending on your needs you might use pressure conversion in different ways. Feel free to adjust the units accordingly and receive results in real time.

This pressure converter has been preconfigured for the most common absolute vacuum scales

Pressure conversion calculator helps to quickly convert between different units that pressure can be expressed in. According to its definition, pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface per the area its applied at. For smooth pressure conversion in this tool we included various units used around the world, such as:

• Pascal - SI (International System of Units) unit equal to one newton per square meter

• Bar - also part of SI and metric system, equals 100,000 Pascals

• Pounds per square inch (also known as pound-force per square inch or psi) - it equals around 6,895 Pascals

• Hectopascal - used mostly by meteorologists to express atmospheric air pressure (equals 100 Pascals)

• Atmospheres - is also called Standard Pressure and represents a fixed value of 101,325 Pascals

Depending on your needs you might use pressure conversion in different ways. Feel free to adjust the units accordingly and receive results in real time.

This pressure converter has been preconfigured for the most common pressure scales

## How to calculate the boiling point under reduced pressure or vacuum

We have preset this calculator for calculating the boiling points of different materials while under a vacuum.  State 1 is the actual boiling point of the material at ambient atmosphere by default and should not be adjusted, while State 2 will calculate the boiling point once you reduce its pressure.  Therefore adjust only State 2's pressure to something less than 760-Torr in order to calculate the materials boiling point under vacuum

Because temperature and air pressure vary from place to place, we need to define reference air conditions. Recently, there is a variety of alternative definitions for the standard conditions (for example in technical or scientific calculations). If you study or work in the technology, engineering or chemical industry, you should always check what standards were used by the author of the publication, article or book you read. You must know what they meant by saying "standard" conditions. Not only do the standards change on a regular basis, but they are also set by various organizations (some have even more than one definition of standard reference conditions). In the list below, you can find several standard reference pressures p₀ and temperatures T₀ in current use (remember that there are many more of them):

• International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC): Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP), p₀ = 10⁵ Pa, T = 0 °C;

• Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): ISO 10780, p₀ = 1 atm, T = 0 °C;

• International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO): International Standard Atmosphere (ISA), p₀ = 1 atm, T = 15 °C;

• United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Normal Temperature and Pressure (NTP), p₀ = 1 atm, T = 20 °C;

• International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry: Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure (SATP), p₀ = 10⁵ Pa, T = 25 °C;

Celsius, also known as Centigrade, is the most common temperature measurement unit, used in almost every country. The temperature conversion to Kelvin is very straightforward: K = C + 273.15 (and C = K - 273.15), while in order to perform Celsius to Fahrenheit conversion you need to use the following equation: F = C * 1.8 + 32, so C = (F - 32) / 1.8. And finally - in order to receive Kelvin value from Fahrenheits you can use the following equation: K = (F + 459.67) * 5 / 9. The other way around is F = K * 9 / 5 - 459.67. . Other temperature units that you might encounter are:

• Rankine

• Delisle

• Newton

• Réaumur

• Rømer

## How to find the volume in a different unit?

Let's imagine that you want to bake a cake, but the problem is that the recipe comes from different part of the world. You are used to your standard units, such as cups or pints, but you have no idea how much is 550 ml of milk. What can you do? Put that value in the calculator next to milliliters unit, and immediately you will get the answer in cups (2.32), pints (1.16) or even teaspoons (110) if you wish.